Destruction of pests
All those working on the ground know what is hard work. Every gardener, grower, whether Amateur or novice farmer, I hope to receive an abundant and quality harvest of berries, fruits, and vegetables. This complex problem can be solved by observing a set of rules based on knowledge of farming and methods of controlling many pests of garden and field crops. In this regard, are the necessary information about the activity of the enemies of the future crops, how they look, what kinds and parts of plants they prefer, how they spend their life cycle of development and reproduction, methods of fight against an army of pests. Impressive squad of enemies of our crops include many species grusome-sucking, crawling and flying insect pests during the growing season of plants, rodents and birds in the collection phase the results of labor invested.
Conventionally pests can be divided into pests of crops, damaging plants in the vegetative period and storage pests, damaging already harvested.
The most common pests of fruit and berry crops
|Pests, their types||Morphology (shape and appearance)||That hurt||The life cycle of the pest|
|Grey aphids Codling||Body shape oval, widest in diameter. The coloring of the females varies from white-gray to dark-olive color, the males have it a dirty brown color. The surface of the body as if sprinkled with aphids: females have a whitish bloom, the males grey. The wings are available only in males.||Migratory form colonizes and develops on the tree in spring, gives birth to a new generation that will fly on nalogovye (so called intermediate) plants. There they develop and Mature until fall. Aphid damage, mostly deciduous part of plants, but during intensive reproduction, the pest also damages the fruits. The leaves, shortly after the infected die off. On fruits, the activity of aphids leads to uncharacteristic for this type of red spots.||Main place of activity of females as non-migrating forms is a Crabapple tree. Oviposition under or in the folds and cracks of the bark produced in the early summer, here they ripen, overwinter and early spring produce a new offspring in the form of larvae which settled in the kidneys, and then on young leaves and start to suck the juice from them.|
|Earwig vegetable garden(1), the common Earwig(2)||Has elongated body terminating in two spines. Has usually two pairs of wings, developed limbs for fast movement. Head with powerful jaws — a sign of the gnawing insect, and fine-jointed antennae.||Hurt berries and various fruit trees||The appearance of larvae similar to adult individuals. They hid in the daytime in moist sheltered and dark places and eat come out of hiding at night.|
|The brown fruit mite||Very small, almost invisible insects that resemble small spiders with a total length of 0.5 mm Masonry of small, spherical eggs are a rusty red color.||Adult mites feed on the juice as buds and leaves of the trees of nearly all fruit crops. This cause enormous damage to plants at the beginning of the growing season because the activities of the mites, stops the growth of damaged shoots, reduced the protective properties of the plant, its resistance to frost, yields are declining.||Mite prolific, masonry has a huge number of eggs of the red-brown color. Lay eggs these insects in the forks of branches with fruit buds, where they remain for the winter. With the arrival of spring and the swelling of buds the eggs hatch, the young larvae move to buds in early blooming|
|Currant Bud mite||Body shape this microscopically small mite resembles a worm. The adult on the ventral surface has two pairs of legs, and larvae have three pairs. The larvae differ from the adult mites intensely red.||The development of the mite takes place inside the buds of this plant species. After the malicious activities of a tick, sucking the juice of buds, it weakens, then shrinking, stops its development, which affects the harvest.|
|Mite strawberry||Females and males ticks differ in the length of the body: females have a length of 0.2 - 0.25 mm, the male is 1.5 times less. The color of the adult mites and larvae is different: the adult insect it is light yellow, the larva is white and the skin is thin, delicate, folded. The number of legs in adults and larvae are also different — 4 pairs in the first, three in the second.||Place for wintering females choose closer to the future place of egg laying, which is most often located at the base of petioles||Laying eggs females on young leaves of plants occurs in early spring. Development cycle: in 1.5 to 2 weeks is ripening, then the hatching larvae, their growth for a short time (1-1,5 weeks), a rest phase of 3-4 days, and then the final formation of the adult mites.|
|Bug or stink bug berry berry||Body shape ellipsoide adult bedbug is a flat, length 10 - 12 mm; color brown with shades of red or yellow, with black spots or stripes orange color at the contour of the abdominal region of the body. Jointed antennae black, segment at the base in the form of yellow rings.||Settles on a wide variety of garden and maintenance of plant trees and shrubs throughout the growing season. Refers to a suckling insects. Feeding on SAP from the leaves, it ends their withering, collapse and subsequent death.||The female with the onset of may, begins to arrange the eggs in groups in perennial grasses. Herbs prefer perennials of the family Cruciferae. Maturation of larvae in the egg lasts 7-10 days, after which the larvae grow, develop and become adult in July. At the end of the last month of summer preparing to spend the winter under various plant residues in the soil.|
|Codling moth||Pest are caterpillars, and they are a harbinger of butterfly dark-grey color with a thin abdomen. The body length of about one centimeter, a wingspan of about 2 cm Are nocturnal, start to fly at dusk. Caterpillar has a length of 1-2. 5 cm, 8 pairs of legs, are quite mobile. Coloration is light pink on top, white below. Live in the folded and glued web plates. Development of a caterpillar ends with the length of 1.6-1.8 cm||Is the worst and very common pest of Apple orchards. The main feed caterpillars — fruit pulp and seeds. During the period of his life (20-38 days) pest manages to damage from 2 to 4 fruits. Some types of podogora harm not only the leaves but also the flowers, fruits and even the root system and the bark of trees.||With the end of flowering late varieties of Apple trees and warming the air up to t = 15° are beginning to emerge butterflies of the Codling moth, which is laying eggs. Such eggs are milky white they usually suit on a smooth surface, or leaves, or fruit. Through 2-2,5 weeks begins the exit of the caterpillars from eggs. Once their development reaches full maturity, they leave the fruit, down the barrel down to make room for the next phase of its development, making holes in the bark of a tree. Being located in the recess, weave a cocoon, inside of which is the transformation of a caterpillar into a chrysalis.|
|Scoop warlike||Scoop — butterfly with double wings. The front wings are scalloped, the hind wings have fringed edges. The coloration of fore wings reddish-brown, posterior brownish-grey, and fringed edging light. A wingspan of up to 4,0 cm Caterpillar of length 4.0 cm, black with white specks on the sides, its thickness is about 0.7 cm, has 6 to 8 pairs of legs.||Pest of fruit crops in the stage of caterpillar damage in the same degree as stone and pome crops. Prefers young gardens it damages the leaves, eating them completely up to the Central vein. Causes significant damage to young fruit-bearing gardens.||The winter butterfly is a little more than two months — from late February to early may. Scoop — pest is very prolific. Butterfly can lay huge numbers of eggs, numbering in the thousands (an average of 3000). Pupation takes place in the recesses of the soil, under a layer of plant residues. The color of the pupa is yellowish-brownish (brownish) color.|
|Aphids green peach||The body length of the adult aphid is 2.5 mm. the Males have wings, females do not. Color females are light green. Born in the spring, the larvae immediately begin to open the kidneys and begin to suck the SAP from buds, and then from the young leaves.||It damages many organs of plants, primarily buds and leaves that is the larva of the aphid. Settled on peach and other fruit trees||Your aphid lays eggs in late autumn, which overwinter on trees fruit crops. She adult aphids in the winter it will not survive.|
|Aphids cherry||Individual adult aphid is shiny black in color, and its length is about 2 mm.||Is a pest of cherry and cherry gardens. Damage in the early stages of the growing season shoots. The leaves at the tips of shoots curl up, eventually wither and fall off.||Makes aphids laying eggs on the shoots at the base of the kidney — the main feeding sites of future larvae. The eggs overwinter. In the spring hatch into larvae, which are placed on the underside of leaves, sucking the juice from them.|
The most common pests of vegetable crops
|Pests, their types||Morphology (shape and appearance)||That hurt||The life cycle of the pest|
|Mole cricket ordinary||The body of an insect to a length of 3.5 to 5.0 cm thickness is about 1.5 cm of the back brown, abdomen brownish — yellowish. The pest has a strong, powerful jaw apparatus, two pairs of wings. The front legs of mole cricket is a burrowing type||Considered one of the most dangerous pests are living and breeding in the soil. Able to destroy large areas of root crops, including stems, it destroys vegetable seeds.||Mole cricket lays its eggs in the soil at a depth of 10 to 30 cm in specially prepared nests. After 1.5 - 2 weeks the eggs are released six-legged creatures — the larvae of the gray spider. Remain in the nest until 3-4 weeks. Reaching the adult stage, crawl, prepare for themselves a separate hole.|
|Slug field||A large part of the shellfish to which the slug and the shell does not have. Some other types can have the shell (snails). The body of the slug is covered with a folded soft and moist from mucus membrane.||"Diet" food of slugs consists of leaves and fruits of various plants, berries, mushrooms. Shellfish much harm not only to gardens and vegetable gardens, but in particular the plants of grapes. In the heat prefer to hide in damp places, come out of hiding when air humidity increases during the rains.||The eggs of slugs and other mollusks lay clumps in wet ground. After 2-3 months the larvae, having reached the age of maturity, begin to create their own clutch of eggs. Eggs for the winter are different subjects, or a layer of vegetation on the soil surface.|
|Colorado potato beetle||Adults of the Colorado potato beetle are sized from 7 a.m. to 12 mm. After 5-17 days after laying the larvae in the form of small worms.||Hit the vegetation as the adults and their larvae. Specializiruetsya pest on Solanaceae. This family of vegetable crops, which includes such important vegetables like potatoes. The pest affects tomatoes and eggplants. Beetles, eating the leaf part of plants, almost lead them to death.||Larvae of the pest live for 2 — 4 weeks. During this period of time, if not to fight with them, they can completely destroy crops.|
|Listblock carrot||Listblock like a fly, its size in length is 10-15 mm. it Has a light green color, transparent wings. Able due to the special structure of the legs to jump like fleas.||The malicious activity of the insect begins as soon as the first sprouts of carrots. Carrot leaves have petioles are the main food of this species of insect.||Adult listblock uses to lay eggs on the aerial part of the root. The development of the embryo in the egg lasts about two weeks, and larvae continues to adult about a month. In the winter, the insect flies off with the end of the summer period.|
|Fly cabbage||Cabbage fly is spring and summer species modification. More dangerous plants is the first kind of flies. Morphological characters of the male are clearly defined 3 bands of dark color on the surface of the back. Females are distinguished by a light gray band along the ventral side of the body.||The object of parasitism of this species of fly chooses the seedlings of early varieties of cabbage and radish.||Laying eggs females lay on the underside of the stems in contact with moist soil. Embryonic development lasts 5-8 days, after which the born fly larvae develop into an adult feeding on stems and leaves, gnawing them to the holes through. Plants get sick, change their color and eventually die. The winter fly is experiencing among the lumps of soil in the form of cocoon.|
|Mol cabbage||Is a butterfly with coloring from brown to dark-brown color. The size of the wingspan is from 1.4 up to 1,7 see the Tracks tend to either green or yellow color. Size — up to 12 mm. From pupae color from gray-yellow to gray-green.||The caterpillars eat the leaf pulp, sometimes penetrate deeper, gnawing inner part of cabbage. Is one of the most dangerous pests of cruciferous crops||Overwinter in a chrysalis on cruciferous weeds and stalks. Butterflies fly in April — June.|
|The root-knot nematode||Length of nematodes from 0.5 to 2 mm., the Females are small, immobile and very prolific. Males are vermiform, motile and colorless.||One of the most dangerous pests of vegetable crops. The larvae penetrate into the tissue of plant roots secrete toxic substances that lead to swelling and growths. The development of diseased plants is slowed down, the yield drops sharply.||The life cycle of the nematode is dependent on temperature and can range from 25 days to 2 months. Nematode overwinters in the soil to a depth of 0.5-0.6 m At t=10-12 °C aktiviziruyutsya.|
|Stem nematode.||Small worms with a size of about 1.7 mm. Love a moist environment. The larvae are similar in structure with older specimens, but their size is smaller.||Is a danger to many plants. The nematode affects most often the bulbs and rhizomes, inserting enzymes that disrupt livelihoods of the affected areas. This leads to thickening of the damaged parts of the plant.||Development lasts from 19 to 25 days. The pest overwinters in the soil. In the spring when t=13-14 °C, nematode aktiviziruyutsya.|
|The fly of beet||The adult is about 6-8 mm. Color ash-gray. The larva is pale yellow with no legs.||Parasitic on the beet. Lays eggs on leaf surface. The hatching larvae burrow into the pulp of the leaves, forming a vesicular swelling, which can lead to yellowing and then death of the leaf.||Development life cycle, the larvae of about 22 days. They pupate in the soil, where it overwinters under leaves.|
|The scoop winter||The wingspan of adult butterfly —35-45 mm. Has front and rear fenders. The first gray or brown in color and the other is white. Size of caterpillar — up to 50 mm. Color grey with a greenish tint.||Parasitic on the roots of vegetables, which lose their taste. A caterpillar bites into the base of the leaves, roots and stems that causes the plant to death.||Winters scoop in the ground at a depth of 20-25 cm and Pupate in mid-spring, and adults appear from mid-may.|
Methods of pest control
To kill pests use several methods: mechanical, agrotechnical, biological and chemical.
The mechanical method uses a variety of traps for rabbits, mice, birds, caterpillars, beetles, which you can purchase in the company "Agrokon".
With the same purpose hunting belt and applied in extreme temperatures — burning or wystawianie soil.
Agricultural practices needed to improve plant resistance to adverse environmental factors. They include a number of preventive measures, such as thinning of dense planting, fertilizing plants with mineral and organic fertilizers, planting is based on the principles of crop rotation and other measures.
Biological (ecological) methods of pest control play a crucial role in integrated pest management, as in home gardens and in agriculture.
Biological methods include:
- ways to attract natural enemies of pests — birds, lizards, frogs, hedgehogs and beneficial insects;
- the use of entomophagous insects"eaters" pests, whose larvae are parasitic in the eggs of harmful insects, feeding on their contents and okuklivanie.
- preparation of the drugs on the basis of decoctions and infusions of plants (onions, garlic, nettle, and many others);
- the use of drugs based on microbial cultures for pest control. To date, successfully applied a number of such products — entobacterin, dendrobacillin, lepidocide, backspin, etc.;
- the use of pheromones in special traps designed to capture pests;
- light trap as a method for catching butterflies and insects, attracted by light at night. By reducing the air temperature below 14° svetlovsky use impractical.
Chemical methods of pest control
Most of the pests appears addiction to chemical remedies that people use for a long time.
Pesticides — the most important group of chemical protection, combining insecticides, herbicides and fungicides. Insecticides designed to kill insects, herbicides to successfully "fight" with weeds, and the effect of fungicides aimed at the destruction of fungal and viral infections.
The main applications of pesticides — agriculture.
Among the chemical methods to control pests include the use of fumigation (gassing) is one of the most effective ways of disinfection used for storage pest control. Since the fumigant is used in a gaseous state, it often allows to achieve almost 100% result.
In the processing of grain silos with fumigation it is possible to maintain a supply of grain from damage by harmful insects, mice and mites, which thrive in the absence of sanitary-hygienic conditions, poor ventilation, high humidity and failure to comply with the temperature regime in the premises.
One of the most important conditions for the preservation of cereal stocks, cereals, legumes and other crops is the use of measures that create the conditions for life and reproduction of pests. Such methods of treatment include the use of drugs with insecticidal and antibacterial properties.
Fumigation of grain currently used fumigants based on hydrogen phosphide (phosphine). Phosphine can be used in ready-made, and get pills on the basis of aluminium phosphide (Phostoxin), magnesium phosphide (Magtoxin). the Latter two are most widely used as the most convenient and safe.
About a month before backfill of crops all the granaries are processed simultaneously. This prevents the movement of pests from infested storage in the clean room. Pest management includes several types of treatments:
Depending on the temperature and height of the mound of grain gassing can last for several days.